phrygians and phrygia - main logo
phrygia menu
International site French site
phrygia home page
phrygians - articles


phrygians - articles Chronology
phrygians - maps Maps
phrygia and phrygians discussion board Photo Gallery
phrygia and phrygians discussion board
test your knowledge of phrygia
about me
links to Phrygian sites
Email me

Back to Articles

Short Bibliography

If you want to know more about Phrygia in Iron Ages, and if this website don't fulfil all your questions, these books will quench your thirst of knowledge. They are accessible in any library of good level ; you will definitely find them in the library of an University.

The Cambridge Ancient History is a series of books written by the specialists of the different fields ; M. Mellink wrote the Phrygian part : "The native Kingdoms of Anatolia", The Cambridge Ancient History III, 2, 1991, p. 619-675 [in English].

Like always in Ancient History, it is wise to check the Realencyclopedie der Altertumswissenschaft. The article of W. Ruge is still useful : "Phrygia", RE XX/1, 1941, col. 781-860 [in German].

M. Voigt wrote a very convenient article on Gordion in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, vol.2, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997, col. 426-431. It summarises the recent results and presents an overall view of the site.

This general view lacks in the final reports of the Gordion team but they nonetheless remain central for Phrygian studies.
Young, R.S., DeVries, K., Kohler, E.L., McClellan, J.F., Mellink, M.J., Sams, G.K., The Gordion excavations. Final reports volume I. Three great Early tumuli, University Museum monograph 43, Philadelphie, 1981.
Kohler, E.L., Gordion Special Reports II : The lesser phrygian tumuli : Part I : the inhumations, Gordion Excavations 1950-1973, University Museum Monograph 88, Philadelphia, 1995.
Gunter, A., Gordion Excavations : Final report III : The Bronze Age, University Museum, Philadelphie, 1991.
Sams, G.K., The Gordion Excavations 1950-1973 : The Early Phrygian pottery, Final reports, vol.4, University Musum Monograph, Philadelphia, 1994.

Two special monograph are published on a category of artefacts :
Roller, L.E., Gordion Special studies I : non-verbal graffiti, dipinti and stamps, University Museum monograph 63, Philadelphia, 1987.
Romano, I.B., Gordion Special studies 2 : The terracotta figurines and related vessels, University Museum Monographie 89, Philadelphie, 1995.

Bibliography is very important on this complicated aspect of Phrygian life. To start, L. Roller's book might be the best guide : In search of god the mother, the cult of the Anatolian Cybele, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1999.

King Midas - the legends and the truth